Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business (e-ISSN:2289-8298)

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business

Nature Or Nurture?: The Case of Entrepreneurship Education in Job Creation

Anisah Abdul Wafi , Suriani Mohamed, Zaliza Hanapi



Student employability is a common issue faced by most Malaysian public universities as reported by the Ministry of Higher Education. The program structure of most undergraduate degree revealed that university graduates fulfilled practical courses such as entrepreneurship which should assist in reducing the unemployment rate among fresh graduates. However, each year, the annual report on employability presents similar scenarios where graduates do not suit the employee requirements or have failed as a job creator despite using the employability skills which they have attained. Thus, this study aims to identify the effectiveness of an entrepreneurship education course among TVET students besides determining suitable pedagogical approaches in entrepreneurship education. This study also attempts to outline the key factors of students’ motivation in entrepreneurship involvement upon graduation. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview among 27 final year students based on their experience during participating in the entrepreneurship carnival. The thematic analysis was employed to identify related narratives recurring patterns or themes. This study generally found that students have some difficulty in applying the entrepreneurship knowledge to a real situation. Therefore, educators should improvise their teaching method to a more current and suitable style to influence the students motivation and intentions of becoming an entrepreneur. In addition, entrepreneurship education is an important program to aid the government in addressing unemployment. It also can facilitate graduates to become as a job creator besides as a job seeker.


Entrepreneurship education, student motivation, graduate employability, TVET

Cite As

Abdul Wafi, A., Mohamed, S., & Hanapi, Z. (2020). Nature Or Nurture?: The Case of Entrepreneurship Education in Job Creation. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business, 8(2), 1-10.

Export Citation

Full Text


  1. Abdullah, Q. ’Aini, Humaidi, N., & Shahrom, M. (2020). Industry revolution 4.0: the readiness of graduates of higher education institutions for fulfilling job demands. Revista Română de Informatică Și Automatică, 30(2), 15–26.
  2. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. Retrieved from
  3. Amjad, T., Abdul Rani, S. H. B., & Sa’atar, S. B. (2020). Entrepreneurship development and pedagogical gaps in entrepreneurial marketing education. International Journal of Management Education, 18(2), 100379.
  4. Badri, R., & Hachicha, N. (2019). Entrepreneurship education and its impact on students’ intention to start up: A sample case study of students from two Tunisian universities. International Journal of Management Education, 17(2), 182–190.
  5. Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2012). Entrepreneurial behavior: Impact of motivation factors on decision to create a new venture. Investigaciones Europeas de Direccion y Economia de La Empresa, 18(2), 132–138.
  6. Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2018). Entrepreneurial intention among engineering students: The role of entrepreneurship education. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 24(1), 53–61.
  7. Bauman, A., & Lucy, C. (2019). Enhancing entrepreneurial education: Developing competencies for success. International Journal of Management Education, (February), 100293.
  8. Blenker, P., Frederiksen, S. H., Korsgaard, S., Müller, S., Neergaard, H., & Thrane, C. (2012). Entrepreneurship as everyday practice: Towards a personalized pedagogy of enterprise education. Industry and Higher Education, 26(6), 417–430.
  9. Block, J., Sandner, P., & Spiegel, F. (2015). How do risk attitudes differ within the group of entrepreneurs? The role of motivation and procedural utility. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(1), 183–206.
  10. Chen, M. H., Chang, Y. Y., & Lo, Y. H. (2015). Creativity cognitive style, conflict, and career success for creative entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 906–910.
  11. Cheng, M. Y., Chan, W. sei, & Mahmood, A. (2009). The effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia. Education + Training, 51(7), 555–566.
  12. Cui, J., Sun, J., & Bell, R. (2019). The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial mindset of college students in China: The mediating role of inspiration and the role of educational attributes. International Journal of Management Education, (February), 100296.
  13. Daley, J. (2006). Are entrepreneurs born or made ? North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 28(4), 1–8. Retrieved from
  14. Dann, G. M. S. (1981). Tourist motivation an appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 8(2), 187–219.
  15. Din, B. H., Anuar, A. R., & Usman, M. (2016). The Effectiveness of the Entrepreneurship Education Program in Upgrading Entrepreneurial Skills among Public University Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 117–123.
  16. Duval-Couetil, N., & Yi, S. (2018). What drives engineering students to be entrepreneurs ? Evidence of validity for an entrepreneurial motivation ccale. Journal of Engineering Education, 107(2), 291–317.
  17. Farhangmehr, M., Gonçalves, P., Sarmento, M., & Sarmento, M. (2016). Predicting entrepreneurial motivation among university students The role of entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 58(7/8), 861–881.
  18. Fayolle, A. (2013). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25, 692–701.
  19. Fayolle, A., & Klandt, H. (2006). International Entrepreneurship Education: Issues and newness. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
  20. Ferreira, A. da S. M., Loiola, E., & Gondim, S. M. G. (2017). Motivations, business planning, and risk management: entrepreneurship among university students. RAI Revista de Administração e Inovação, 14(2), 140–150.
  21. Frunzaru, V., & Cismaru, D. M. (2018). The impact of individual entrepreneurial orientation and education on generation Z’s intention towards entrepreneurship. Kybernetes, 2000.
  22. Gimmon, E. (2014). Mentoring as a practical training in higher education of entrepreneurship. Education and Training, 56, 814–825.
  23. Hägg, G., & Kurczewska, A. (2019). Who is the student entrepreneur? Understanding the emergent adult through the pedagogy and andragogy interplay. Journal of Small Business Management, 57(S1), 130–147.
  24. Iwu, C. G., Opute, P. A., Nchu, R., Eresia-Eke, C., Tengeh, R. K., Jaiyeoba, O., & Aliyu, O. A. (2019). Entrepreneurship education, curriculum and lecturer-competency as antecedents of student entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Management Education, (February), 100295.
  25. Jones, B., & Iredale, N. (2010). Enterprise education as pedagogy. Education + Training, 52(1), 7–19.
  26. Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J. A., Lans, T., Chizari, M., & Mulder, M. (2016). The impact of entrepreneurship education : A study of Iranian students ’ entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity identification. Journal of Small Business Management ISSN:, 54(1), 187–209.
  27. Krueger, J. N. F., & Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurship and regional development : Applying the theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal, 5(4), 315–330.
  28. Küttim, M., Kallaste, M., Venesaar, U., & Kiis, A. (2014). Entrepreneurship Education at University Level and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, 658–668.
  29. Mahto, R. V., & McDowell, W. C. (2018). Entrepreneurial motivation: a non-entrepreneur’s journey to become an entrepreneur. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(3), 513–526.
  30. Marinič, P., Záthurecký, V., & Špičák, O. (2014). Motivation of university students as future entrepreneurs. Central European Journal of Management, 1(2), 51–69.
  31. Mason, C., & Harvey, C. (2013). Entrepreneurship : Contexts , opportunities and processes. Business History, 55(1), 1–8.
  32. Mohamad, M., & Kasuma, J. (2016). Identifying motivation factor involvement of Sarawak malay women entrepreneur. Jurnal Managemen Dan Kewirausahaan, 18(1), 54–59.
  33. MoHE. (2020). Kajian Pengesanan Graduan. Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia.
  34. Mozahem, N. A., & Adlouni, R. O. (2020). Using entrepreneurial self-efficacy as an indirect measure of entrepreneurial education. The International Journal of Management Education, (March), 100385.
  35. Obschonka, M., Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2017). Entrepreneurship as a twenty-first century skill: entrepreneurial alertness and intention in the transition to adulthood. Small Business Economics, 48(3), 487–501.
  36. Oosterbeek, H., Praag, M. Van, & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills. European Economic Review, 54, 442–454.
  37. Ratten, V., & Jones, P. (2020). Covid-19 and entrepreneurship education: Implications for advancing research and practice. International Journal of Management Education, (xxxx), 100432.
  38. Raza, S. A., Qazi, W., & Shah, N. (2018). Factors affecting the motivation and intention to become an entrepreneur among business university students. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 12(3), 221–241.
  39. Rushworth, S., Vanevenhoven, J., Winkel, D., & Liguori, E. (2016). Applying entrepreneurial action to explore entrepreneurship pedagogy: The entrepreneurship education project. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 27(2), 1–17.
  40. Schafer, R., Barton, M., Canavati, S., Barton, M., Schaefer, R., & Canavati, S. (2018). To be or not to be a social entrepreneur : Motivational drivers amongst American business students. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6(1), 9–35.
  41. Singh, A. (2014). Challenges and Issues of Generation Z. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(7), 59–63.
  42. Staniewski, M. W., & Awruk, K. (2019). Entrepreneurial success and achievement motivation – A preliminary report on a validation study of the questionnaire of entrepreneurial success. Journal of Business Research, 101(January), 433–440.
  43. Suryana, Y., Iwan, M., & Rita, K. (2015). Improving business performance through entrepreneur motivation and value creation on small and medium enterprises. In The 2015 Asia Conference on Economics & Business Research (ACEB) organised (pp. 21–28).
  44. Testa, S., & Frascheri, S. (2015). Learning by failing : What we can learn from un-successful entrepreneurship education. International Journal of Management Education, 13(1), 11–22.
  45. Zaliza Hanapi, Tang Jing Rui, Rus, R. C., Tee Tze Kiong, & Suriani Mohamed. (2020). Developing instruments for employability skills measurement for trainee teachers in Technical and Vocational Education field. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 1, 175–180.
  46. Zhang, Y., Duysters, G., & Cloodt, M. (2014). The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students ’ entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10, 623–641.